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Chapter 48 includes details on service water heating. 8. Load characteristics of rooms, dwelling units, and buildings can be well defined with little need to anticipate future changes to the design loads, other than the addition of a service such as cooling that may not have been incorporated originally. 9. The prevalence of shifting, transient interior loads and exterior exposures with glass results in high diversity factors; the longhour usage results in fairly high load factors. DESIGN CONCEPTS AND CRITERIA Wide load swings and diversity within and between rooms require the design of a flexible system for 24-hour comfort.

The 300 series stainless steel, painted galvanized, or aluminum sheet metal may be used for exposed duct systems. Buried ductwork should be constructed from non-metallic fiberglass reinforced or PVC materials due to the difficulty of replacing damaged materials. • Grilles, registers and diffusers should be constructed from aluminum. They should be selected for low static pressure loss and for appropriate throws for proper air distribution. • Supply air should be directed against interior envelope surfaces prone to condensation (walls, glass, and doors).

Multiple PTAC units allow additional zoning in dwellings having more rooms. Additional radiation heat is sometimes needed around the perimeter in cold climates. Heat for a PTAC may be supplied either by electric resistance heaters or by hot water or steam heating coils. Initial costs are lower for a decentralized system using electric resistance heat. Operating costs are lower for coils heated by combustion fuels. Despite having relatively inefficient refrigeration circuits, the operating cost of a PTAC is quite reasonable, mostly because individual thermostatic control each machine, which eliminates the use of reheat while preventing the space from being overheated or overcooled.

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1999 ASHRAE Handbook Preface

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