Download e-book for kindle: ABC of Diabetes by Peter J. Watkins

By Peter J. Watkins

ISBN-10: 0585441197

ISBN-13: 9780585441191

ISBN-10: 0727916939

ISBN-13: 9780727916938

Coronary artery illness (CAD) factors critical incapacity and extra demise than the other illness in prosperous societies, together with melanoma. The health conditions linked to it are angina, ischaemia, volatile angina, myocardial infarction, arrhythmias, center failure and surprising loss of life.

Choosing the precise research to substantiate a analysis is helping to evaluate chance and be sure the proper therapy direction. GPs additionally want to know the powerful lifestyle and risk-factor alterations as well as advocating the simplest scientific remedy.

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The commonest times are before lunch and during the night. Some patients in their constant fear of developing diabetic complications drive their blood glucose levels ever lower with disastrous consequences in terms of hypoglycaemia. Severe physical activity, such as swimming very long distances, is a powerful stimulus of hypoglycaemia, and as much as 40 to 50 g additional carbohydrate may be needed to prevent it. Hypoglycaemia in these situations is sometimes delayed for several hours. Several well-known sportsmen and women with diabetes show considerable ingenuity and perseverance in the way in which they cope with their diabetes during international competitions, by individual attention to food and insulin intake, carefully timed blood glucose monitoring, and ready availability of sugary fluids such as Lucozade at exactly the right moment.

All patients should have a supply of insulin pens or syringes in case of pump failure. 5 4 6 8 10 Midnight 2 4 6 D 8 10 Midday Time Adjustments after assessment of blood glucose profiles. Note the apparent different shape of the profile if readings are taken at points ABCD or PQRS To increase blood glucose in the troughs • Eat more carbohydrate at or before the times when blood glucose values are at their lowest, usually mid-morning and at bedtime; the exact amount of extra carbohydrate can be determined only by trial and error • Reduce the dose of insulin before the trough • Premeal hypoglycaemia can be ameliorated by substituting short acting insulin with a very short acting insulin analogue To decrease blood glucose in the peaks • Reduce by a little the amount of carbohydrate taken at the meals which precede the peaks by two or three hours • Increase the dose of insulin before the peak Soluble insulin should be altered to change blood glucose concentrations during the following six hours.

The increased need for insulin occurs even when the appetite declines or vomiting begins. Every insulin treated patient should understand that insulin should never be stopped. Stopping or even reducing insulin during the course of an illness often leads to diabetic ketoacidosis. When a diabetic person is ill the normal insulin dose should be continued, carbohydrate taken in some palatable fluid form, and the blood tested regularly—four times a day if necessary. If blood glucose readings greater than 15 mmol/l are obtained the dose of insulin should be increased.

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ABC of Diabetes by Peter J. Watkins


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