By Angela O'rand, John C Henretta
Within the usa, older populations express the top degrees of monetary inequality of all age teams. throughout all complicated societies, the inequalities saw in older populations stem from structural and person tactics that differentiate the existence classes of ladies and males and yield special styles of monetary inequality in maturity and previous age.Age and Inequality examines the structural and person bases of inequality and getting older within the usa, particularly in contemporary a long time. The interaction of the employment approach with private and non-private social assurance structures operates to constitution the shapes of labor careers and the styles of go out from those careers in past due maturity and outdated age.Gender inequality around the existence direction is a vital part of age inequality. hard work marketplace constitution, kingdom rules, and lifestyles direction elements equivalent to fertility and the department of loved ones hard work systematically differentiate men’s and women’s paintings careers.Aging and retirement within the twenty-first century elevate matters concerning public welfare and marketplace guidelines affecting hard work exits and source of revenue aid structures over the following part century. Angela O’Rand and John Henretta give some thought to the results of the altering place of work and altering public regulations for ladies and males.
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Extra resources for Age and Inequality: Diverse Pathways Through Later Life
Early inequalities persist on average in relatively stable ways into old age. Educational attainment is converted into wages. Wages are converted into assets and pension wealth. Thus gender and class inequality over the life course reflect strong status maintenance patterns. Cumulative advantage characterizes patterns of divergence or increased inequality over time. In market-centered societies advantages and disadvantages can be compounded over time, particularly at critical life transitions like retirement.
Cohorts, Inequality, and Social Change /- efficients of mean adult incomes show that inequality is higher in 1987 than in 1964 for all age-groups below age 55-59, although inequality below age 45 is generally higher than after age 45. Second, the cohort analyses demonstrate that whereas succeeding cohorts are initially more economically advantaged than their predecessors, postwar birth cohorts' income trajectories improve at lower rates as they age than earlier cohorts' trajectories. The slopes of baby boom trajectories reveal steeper increases in income through the mid-1970s and flatter trajectories afterward that coincide with the economically more depressed and uncertain 1980s.
The contrasting patterns of continuity and change between work and retirement phases are conceptualized by Henretta and Campbell (1976; 1978; Campbell and Henretta 1980) through the processes of status maintenance and status leveling. The view that there are strong links in the individual determinants of status between work and retirement is captured by the concept of relative status maintenance. Occupation and industry placement produce careers with higher income, greater pension wealth, and increased accumulation of other types of economic assets.
Age and Inequality: Diverse Pathways Through Later Life by Angela O'rand, John C Henretta