By Ian Stuart-Hamilton
With the world's inhabitants getting more and more older, there hasn't ever been a extra urgent desire for the examine of previous age and growing older. An advent to Gerontology presents a wide-ranging advent to this crucial subject. by means of assuming no past professional wisdom and warding off jargon, this publication will advisor scholars via all of the major matters in gerontology, protecting either conventional parts, similar to organic and social growing older, in addition to extra modern components, similar to expertise, the humanities, sexuality and schooling of older adults. An creation to Gerontology is written by way of a workforce of overseas authors with multidisciplinary backgrounds who draw proof from various diverse views and traditions.
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Extra info for An Introduction to Gerontology
Values are expressed in percentage for the US population (2002–03 data set). Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2008. 2 Mortality rates as a function of age. Values are expressed in deaths per 100,000 people, plotted on a logarithmic scale, for the 2002 US population. Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2008. if women were more robust than men. The causes for these gender differences remain a mystery (Austad, 2006). Paradoxically, it is conventional wisdom that women have poorer health than men, though sex differences in morbidity suggest the situation to be more complex than conventional wisdom suggests, with strong variation observed across the lifespan (Macintyre, Hunt and Sweeting, 1996).
As a result, genes with beneficial effects at early ages but harmful at later ones will be favoured by natural selection. Because genes with opposing effects are known as pleiotropic, this theory became known as the antagonistic pleiotropy theory (Williams, 1957). Therefore, two main models exist for explaining the evolution of ageing: one in which harmful late-acting mutations accumulate because the force of natural selection is weaker at later ages, and the other in which harmful late-acting mutations accumulate because they are beneficial at earlier ages.
The salmon is a good example, but the marine mollusc Phestilla sibogae is an even better illustration: in these animals, the length of larval life is determined by a chance encounter with a stimulus that causes metamorphosis, yet the length of post-larval life is unaffected by the length of time it takes the larva to metamorphose, as if ageing were suspended during the larval time (Miller and Hadfield, 1990). 12 on Thu Oct 11 11:23:13 BST 2012. , 2007). Although the developmental theory of ageing explains many observations, and may be linked to endocrine changes that regulate both development and ageing, just like the endocrine theory, it lacks concrete details of how developmental mechanisms could influence age-related changes at the cellular and molecular levels.
An Introduction to Gerontology by Ian Stuart-Hamilton