By Felix K. Ameka, Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu
This ebook explores the thesis that during the Kwa languages of West Africa, element and modality are extra valuable to the grammar of the verb than stressful. the place demanding marking has emerged it's continually within the expression of the long run, and as a result enthusiastic about the upcoming actualization or potentiality of an occasion, consequently with modality, instead of the merely temporal sequencing linked to demanding. the first grammatical contrasts are perfective as opposed to imperfective.The major languages mentioned are Akan, Dangme, Ewe, Ga and Tuwuli whereas Nzema-Ahanta, Likpe and jap Gbe also are pointed out. wisdom approximately those languages has deepened significantly up to now decade or so and concepts approximately their constitution have replaced. the amount hence provides novel analyses of grammatical varieties just like the so-called S-Aux-O-V-Other or "future" structures, and gives empirical info for theorizing approximately element and modality. it may be of substantial curiosity to Africanist linguists, typologists, and creolists attracted to substrate matters.
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Extra info for Aspect and Modality in Kwa Languages (Studies in Language Companion Series)
The meaning of (83b) is clear; the referent of the Subject is viewed as going through a situation or a world which will ultimately find him/her lying on a surface. Unlike in the case of many other verbs, it would be wrong to render the use of the Progressive here with the English -ing form of the verb. ‘he is lying down’ in English means he is already in a position of rest. In (83a) the event is pictured as having (i) a beginning, (ii) an end, which represents the completion of the event, and (iii) a state, which results from the completion.
Lost ‘the things are getting lost’ and similar others. Here, what the predicate expresses is uncertainty about a state of affairs. There are a few verbs in the language which do not normally co-occur with the Progressive affix at all. These are mostly verbs which express highly personal beliefs, emotions and judgments. They include sùsúw ‘suppose’, gyé dí ‘believe’, wérϯ fí ‘forget’, dѐ ‘love’, kyí ‘hate’, yϯ ‘seem to’. ’ a-dì INF-eat The English equivalents of these verbs have been referred to by Joos as “private verbs” (see Hill 1958: 207).
There is no hint or indication of the manner of distribution of the event through time. A similar point of view is expressed by Joos (1964a, b). He prefers to call the Perfect a “phase” rather than an aspect because the specified event and its relevant effects are “out of phase” with each other. And, as claimed by Joos, this “can only be true if those effects are delayed so as to be later than their cause: that event” (1964b: 68). e. the present experience of enjoyment of having had a bath); because the effects are delayed so as to be later than the event (which is the cause of the effects).
Aspect and Modality in Kwa Languages (Studies in Language Companion Series) by Felix K. Ameka, Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu