By Geoffrey Russom
This can be a transparent and obtainable account of early Germanic alliterative verse that explains how such verse used to be taken care of via the Beowulf poet. There are transformations of poetic variety among Beowulf and the another way related verse of historical Scandinavia and continental Europe. Such differences have intrigued students for over a century, yet Russom is the 1st to supply a scientific clarification of outdated English, previous Norse, outdated Saxon and outdated excessive German alliterative meters. Russom's effects may still curiosity students of outdated English and comparable Germanic languages, in addition to linguists and people excited about poetic meter.
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Additional info for Beowulf and Old Germanic Metre
P. 142. An example of skaldic type C with an Ssx word group is Heyr I Mims vinar II mina (FI Ill), which appears in the same stanza as example (9), the complex variant of skaldic type B with an Sxs word group. Tolerance for word groups within the foor evidently varied from one skald to another. Kuhn's paradigmatic form of skaldic type C is exemplified by at I /orsnjallir IIfel/u (F715). 19 on Mon Sep 02 17:37:18 WEST 2013. 003 Cambridge Books Online © Cambridge University Press, 2013 Beowulf and Old Germanic metre R3 Unstressed words may appear before either foot (as consistent with P2).
10 The syncaccically problematic Beo 6a is emended in Klaeber, and I assume chat it is due co scribal error. 19 on Mon Sep 02 17:37:35 WEST 2013. 004 Cambridge Books Online © Cambridge University Press, 2013 Beowulf and Old Germanic metre Although it has a relatively low frequency, the verse pattern Sxx/S occurs too often i n our Eddie corpus to ignore. 1 1 Consider the following: (5) kQllooo I Karl 1 2 (Rp 2 113) [Sxx/S} (6) Latumat I okkr1 3 (Wk Ang 29a) [Sxx/S} (7) Freyio at I qvren 1 4 (Prk 8/8) [Sxx/S} (8) (9) ( 1 0) ne I nioia in heldr1 5 sem I biorg e3a brim 1 6 um I lQnd oc um 1Qg 17 (HH 1 2/3) (HH 28/5) (Hdl 2417) The paradigmatic example (5) has a trisyllabic finite verb in the first foot.
One of the most important challenges facing the audience was to see the analogy between such a word group and the type of larger word for which it substituted. Consider the following two verses: (1) (2) snyz I iormungandr3° gengr / Ooins sonr31 (Vsp 50/3) (Vsp 56/3) In word-foot notation, the slash represents the boundary between the two feet of the verse. Example (1) is a two-word realization of the pattern x/ Sxs, with a weakly stressed, non-alliterating verb followed by an Sxs compound. Example (2) has the same syntax, but the noun phrase Ooins sonr substitutes for an Sxs compound in the second foot.
Beowulf and Old Germanic Metre by Geoffrey Russom